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In this dis- course, the predominant understanding takes heterosexuality as the norm and other ex- pressions of sexuality as pathological. Foucault, Since then, there emerged a growing attention on sexual sexuality, pleasure as an emphasis on sexual performance and on orgasm.
A normal sexual response and should culminate in orgasm not to be characterized as sexual deviance Tepper, Shakespeare points out that, from this moment, the sexuality of people with disabil- experience ities came to be seen as a medical tragedy arising from their disability and, in some cases, of imbued with a concern that faulty genes would come to be replicated.
Next, the main in results obtained will be presented with an emphasis on the intersection of gender and disability and its implications for the sexuality dimension.
sociedade inclusive e cidadania pdf
Lastly, it will be given some con- southern siderations related to the intersection of gender and disability and its effects on the lives Brazil of the women interviewed. Gesser, A.
Nuernberg and M. The research aimed to study the process of constitution of women with disabilities according to the dimensions of gender, body and sexuality, seeking to identify the mediations that were important in this process as well as the changes oc- curred since the participation of women in a group for discussion and reflection about the dimensions presented above.
The subjects were eight women with physical disabilities affiliated to an association of people with disabilities focused on human rights and participants of a group, coordinated by one of the authors, of women from the organization.
This group aimed to: a discuss the implication of the existence of a dominant body pattern in the constitution of women with physical disabilities; b provide discussions on topics such as dating, sexuality, family, and work, and c provide a space for the participating women for exchanging experiences regarding different spheres of life.
The study was conducted based on the needs identified among women and is one of the actions undertaken by the association of people with dis- abilities that aims at the social inclusion of its members. After approval of the research by the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Fed- eral University of Santa Catarina, the participants were invited to participate in the study.
At that time, the participants were presented the Statement of Informed Consent with its goals, rationale, and the technical procedures of the research. The participants were also informed that the interviews would be recorded on an audio device and that their identity would be preserved in the dissemination of results.
All interviews were conducted in the homes of the participants in dates and times sched- uled in advance according to their convenience. This was important in order to make it pos- sible to learn about the social context in which they lived. However, due to the presence of family members during the interviews and the inability to maintain privacy, one interview had to be rescheduled and another finalized in a soundproof room available in the associa- tion of people with disabilities, of which the participants were members.
The subjects were mostly Catholic, aged 24 to 68 years. Five subjects were white and three were pardas brown. There were three single subjects, one widow, and one divorcee, while the other subjects were married or in stable relationships. Seven of them were from lower classes and had a per capita income equal to or less than the legal minimum wage.
It also seeks to emphasize the processes of appropriation of these determinants and their mediation in the way the subject thinks, feels, and acts. Regarding the procedures used in discourse analysis, the first step consisted of a detailed transcript of the speech, in which the authors sought to identify both text and subtext. Next the authors proceeded to perform an initial reading of the material, searching for the meanings that the respondents attached to issues related to gender, body, and sexuality and their intersections or other elements present in their historical and cultural context.
Lastly, these elements were grouped into categories of analysis. Results and discussion The stories of the women interviewed showed that the experience of disability was marked by processes of prejudice, oppression, and social exclusion, corroborating authors such as Higgins , Esmail, Darry, Walter and Knupp , Soares et al.
These processes were very much in interpersonal relations and mediated the process configuration of the constitution of the subject. Specifically with regard to the intersection of gender and disability and its implications to the experience of sexuality, four elements stood out.
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They are: a the process of infantiliza- tion and asexualization of the disabled person; b the failure to recognize the status of wife and mother; c the refusal to erotize the disabled body, and d the resistance of women with disabilities to oppressive discourses.
These elements are presented below. Gender, sexuality, The Process of Infantilization and Asexualization and of a Person With Disability experience of The information obtained in this study showed that the respondents were infantilized disability and characterized as asexual over the course of their lives. This process hindered the guar- in women antee of sexual and reproductive rights advocated by the UN Convention, as stated above in the introduction to this article.
The most representative M. Nuernberg to polio acquired at the age of two and who currently uses a wheelchair. She reported that and since adolescence she had her sexuality curtailed by relatives. They maintained that, as a M. In addition, her relatives believed that she was not able to discrimi- Sexuality nate the intentions of the people who were to approach her and would end up giving away the property left to her by her father to a person who was not family.
When she found a boyfriend, her relatives came to the point of making her sign a document renouncing her house for the benefit of her sister. The following is a report on a situation that occurred when a boyfriend called her and her mother answered When I was not home, then my mother would give him a piece of her mind, called him a shameless bum and all, and that the only thing he wanted to grab was what I had inherited.
There are several factors that can contribute to the process configuration of infantiliza- tion of people with disabilities.
Specifically in the case of Monica, from the information obtained in her testimony, the notion maintained by her relatives that men who wished to date her could unduly take advantage of her inheritance, since she had no cognitive ability to identify their intentions, seemed to be more present than the significa- tion of sex as a source of danger.
The understanding on the part of some people within the context in which the respon- dents lived that people with disabilities are asexual was an aspect experienced by some respondents. Simone, a year old lady who became paraplegic at 18, reported to have been through situations in which comments were made stating that she was beautiful and regretting that she had a disability.
According to Thorne et al. The au- thors also point out that this idea is related to the fact that the bodies of women with disabilities diverge from the normative standard of the contemporary world. Shakespeare pointed out that the idea that people with disabilities are neutral in respect to sexuality is also related to the fact that sexuality is hege- monically understood as the ability to complete the sexual response cycle, something not always possible for people with disabilities.
Intrinsically related to the process of infantilization and asexualization of disabled wom- en there was a question referring to the failure to recognize them as possible wives and mothers. This question will be presented in the next section. Failing to Recognize the Status of Wife and Mother The intersection of gender and disability also contributed to the failure to recognize the status of wife and mother. Considering that the UN Convention emphasizes the right of the person with disability to willingly marry and found a family, it is important to give visibility to this issue.
As regards the maternity dimension, four of the eight respondents had had children. Architectural barriers lack of accessibility and attitudinal barriers myths, prejudices, and stigma operated as limiting the exercise of motherhood to all respondents who had children. They reported as a major architectural barrier the lack of transport for taking their children to see a doctor and to leisure activities, as well as for participating in other Gender, activities they associate with motherhood, such as attending school meetings.
She had been dating her current husband for three months by the Brazil time of the accident.
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There was a whole A. Nuernberg future ahead, one that So that was a pretty tricky situation, right?
Serena and her husband had twins. When they were born, there was a concern that Sere- na, being a person with disability, would raise two children. This event is also re- vealing of discrimination — especially gender discrimination — since it is an evidence of the existence of the belief that it is up for the woman to care for the children and that a person with disability, by not being able to take care of her- or himself, similarly could not take care of other beings.
In short, it is evident that gender and disability are categories that intersect and therefore cannot be analyzed separately in the process of constitution of the subject. These studies, as already emphasized in the introduction to this study, showed that there is a cultural meaning that women with disabilities are unable to fulfill the traditional roles of homemaker, wife, worker, and mother McDonald et al.
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Therefore, it was observed that the intersection of gender and disability can limit the rights recommended in the UN Convention, namely the rights to marry and found a family. The following section shows how this intersection produces a body whose eroticization had been removed.
The Removal of the Eroticization of the Disabled Body This section shows the relationship of the respondents with a body comprised by the stigma of disability. Although six out of the eight respondents are also obese and have reported to feel more judged by their obesity than by their injuries and impairments, the stigma of disability was also present and mediated their relationship with sexuality. Let us consider her testimony below: Yeah Because I think like this — but it is really because of the deformity we have, the problems we had with scars, having [dark] wounds and deep scars, right?
So I think, like, all of these count. Furthermore, according to the authors, the process of sexual socialization, learned and stimulated daily, increasingly tends to establish for the subjects what are the desires, feelings, roles, and sex- ual practices typical of each social group, and what are the sexual alternatives allowed by their cultures. Fontes points out that the idea that a body with injuries and impairments is less desirable is replicated mainly by medical and media discourses through the establishment of a certain body standard and the definition of this body as erotic Fontes, Page 2.
Fernando Haddad — Prefeito. Guilherme Assis Acesso em: Baixe imediatamente apostilas de Direitos Humanos para concurso. Materiais em PDF para download imediato. Apostila Cidadania e Direitos Humanos. Uploaded by Flag for Antonelli Marcelino Essas imagens de D. Ranieri, M. Os temas Acesso em: Diretor de Projetos.
Formacao de educadores de jovens e adultos Guareschi Pedro e Jovchelovitch Orgs. Plano nacional de gerenciamento costeiro - Marinha do Brasil ; Um grande desafio que refletia o compromisso governam ental Francisco iese.. Bonga, 4 de Novembro de O Grande desafio - www.Studies conducted by Nosek and Hunghes show that the services provided to women are based on male standards and address the needs of women according to tradi- sexuality, tional social gender assignments.
Qual o papel da Diversidade Cultural na Economia Criativa? Foucault, She reported that and since adolescence she had her sexuality curtailed by relatives. Nuernberg future ahead, one that Ver aqui o comunicado da Companhia Mascarenhas Martins.
These elements mediated the relationship of the respondents with their fam- ilies and the community.
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